Angiogenesis and inflammation are both important to the pathogenesis of malignancies. The growth of new blood vessels to fat or cancer cells is driven by a diversity of “growth factors.” Hormone-like chemicals produced by the immune system during the inflammatory process stimulates angiogenesis. Today’s prevalence of high-carbohydrate eating, especially high consumption of sugar and white flour, sets the stage for inflammation and positive growth factors that stimulate angiogenesis—both of which head people down the road to eventual cancer and tumor formation.
Drs. David A. Walsh and Claire I. Pearson at the University of Nottingham Clinical Sciences Building, UK say that, “Angiogenesis and inflammation are codependent processes. Some forms of inflammation, especially chronic inflammation, can stimulate vessel growth. New vessels may contribute to a tissue’s altered inflammatory response. Evidence is now accumulating that agents that have been designed to specifically inhibit angiogenesis may also inhibit chronic inflammation.”
Drs. Beat Imhof & Michel Aurrand-Lions at the Centre Medicale Universitaire, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Switzerland write that, “Angiogenesis and inflammation are two processes that involve common molecular mechanisms. Although inflammation is essential to defend the body against pathogens, it has adverse effects on surrounding tissue. Some of these effects induce angiogenesis. Inflammation and angiogenesis are thereby linked processes.” They pointed out that Fiedler et al. found that a well-known regulator of angiogenesis, angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), can up-regulate inflammatory responses—revealing a common signaling pathway for inflammation and angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels.
Inflammation may promote angiogenesis in a number of ways. Inflamed tissue is often hypoxic, and hypoxia can induce angiogenesis through up-regulation of factors such as VEGF. Inflammatory cells such as macrophages, lymphocytes, mast cells, and fibroblasts, and the angiogenic factors they produce, can stimulate vessel growth. Many pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, (TNF)-α, may have angiogenic activity in addition to pro-inflammatory activity. Increased blood flow itself may stimulate angiogenesis through shear stresses on the endothelium. Inflammation also may up-regulate the expression of angiogenic growth factors such as VEGF and FGF-1 by resident cells such as fibroblasts.
Moderate carbohydrate restriction can reduce markers of chronic inflammation associated with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes—both of which are linked to chronic inflammation. The same goes for cancer since inflammation is a well-established driver of early tumor genesis and accompanies most, if not all, cancers. Chronic inflammation can both cause, and develop along with, neoplasia. There is evidence that chronic intake of easily digestible carbohydrates is able to promote such an inflammatory state in leukocytes and endothelial cells.
Inflammatory diseases are intensified in
direct proportion to the amount of sugar used.
Dr. Nancy Appleton wrote, “One of the biggest offenders of inflammation is ingestion of sugar. By sugar I mean table sugar, brown sugar, raw sugar, turbinado sugar, honey (even raw), maple sugar, corn sweetener, dextrose, glucose, fructose and any other word that ends in an “ose”, barley malt, rice syrup, liquid cane sugar, concentrated fruit juice and others. Don’t be fooled by the name organic when it applies to sugar. Sugar is sugar, organic or not, and the following will explain exactly what can happen in the body when you eat as little as two teaspoons.”
“Every time a person eats as little as two teaspoons [of sugar] we can upset our body chemistry and disrupt homeostasis, the wonderful balance in the body needed for maintenance, repair and life itself. One of the many changes this upset body chemistry causes is for our minerals to change relationship to each other. Sugar in the amount that we eat today (over 150 lbs, or over 1/2 cup a day) continually upsets our body chemistry, causes the inflammatory process and leads to disease. The less sugar you eat, the less inflammation, and the stronger the immune system to defend us against infectious and degenerative diseases,” Appleton concludes.
According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Americans consume between 100-180 pounds of sugar each year. Only about 29 pounds is directly from the sugar bowl while the rest comes from foods and drinks.
Dr. Luc Tappy of Switzerland and Drs. Peter Havel and Kimber Stanhope at the University of California tell us that pure fructose is not the same thing as sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. When Dr. Tappy fed his human subjects the equivalent of the fructose in 8-10 cans of Coke or Pepsi a day—a “pretty high dose,” he says—their livers would start to become insulin-resistant, and their triglycerides would go up in just a few days! Sang Wang, writing in his book, Reverse Aging, “Soft drinks, especially the cola type, are highly acidic. I calculate that in order to neutralize a glass of cola with a pH of 2.5 it would take 32 glasses of alkaline water with a pH of 10.”
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center are also investigating possible new treatments that starve cancer cells of their key nutrient—sugar. Cancer cells are such incredible sugar junkies that they'll self-destruct when deprived of glucose. Though doctors at Johns Hopkins and everywhere else doubt the importance of diet, I make an overwhelming case for the conclusion that sugar is one of the major causes of cancer—which is good news for with this knowledge cancer can be more easily reversed.
Dehydration and excess sugar intake are two of the most basic causes of inflammation that eventually lead to a host of diseases but so are the vitamin and mineral deficiencies that build up from eating modern diets. Also most people today are suffering from intense chemical and even radiation exposures and the list goes on even to include the stress we feel for a diverse range of reasons.
Harvard Medical says:
Chronic low-grade inflammation is intimately involved in all stages of atherosclerosis, the process that leads to cholesterol-clogged arteries. This means that inflammation sets the stage for heart attacks, most strokes, peripheral artery disease, and even vascular dementia, a common cause of memory loss. Inflammation doesn’t happen on its own. It is the body’s response to a host of modern irritations like smoking, lack of exercise, high-fat, high-calorie meals, and highly processed foods.
Medical researchers and pharmaceutical companies are hot on the trail of inflammation-busting drugs. Don’t bother waiting—they are a long way off, are bound to be expensive, and will almost certainly have side effects. Instead, you can turn to simple tools that ease inflammation. We’ll focus on diet here, but don’t forget about avoiding cigarette smoke (yours or someone else’s), exercising, watching your weight, and taking care of your teeth.
The bolus of blood sugar that accompanies a meal or snack of highly refined carbohydrates (white bread, white rice, French fries, sugar-laden soda, etc.) increases levels of inflammatory messengers called cytokines. Eating whole-grain bread, brown rice, and other whole grains smooths out the after-meal rise in blood sugar and insulin, and dampens cytokine production. The more fruits and vegetables you eat, the lower the burden of inflammation. Why? They contain hundreds, perhaps thousands, of substances that squelch inflammation-rousing free radicals; some act as direct anti-inflammatory agents.
Most dietary sugars are simple carbohydrates, meaning that they’re made up of one or two sugar molecules stuck together, making them easy to pull apart and digest. Complex carbohydrates, like those found in whole grains, legumes and many vegetables, are long chains of sugar molecules that must be broken apart during digestion, therefore offering a longer-lasting surge of energy. The presence of naturally occurring fiber, protein and fat in many whole foods further slows the sugar-release process.
The more processed and refined the carbohydrate the faster it breaks down in the digestive system, and the bigger the sugar rush it delivers. That’s why refined flours, sugars and sugary syrups pose such a problem for our systems that were never designed to handle so much simple sugar at one time. The body is designed to handle small amounts of sugar but if a person pours too much down their throat too fast it starts an inflammatory fire that gets hotter the more dehydrated and acidic a person already is.
Sugar can dehydrate us if it gets to very high levels in the blood. This can happen for diabetics, and also can happen when they take certain medications or during infections. The kidneys will start producing more urine to try to eliminate the excess sugar in the bloodstream and the fluid balance is lost (as is magnesium), and dehydration can result. Sugar excess and dehydration work together to create inflammation in the body and this starts a long process that can lead to major diseases.
A recent study by Dr. Simin Liu of Harvard found that women who ate large amounts of high-glycemic (or diabetes-promoting) carbohydrates, including potatoes, breakfast cereals, white bread, muffins, and white rice, were overweight and had dangerously high CRP (C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation) levels. The body makes CRP from interleukin-6 (IL-6), a powerful inflammatory chemical. IL-6 is a key cell communication molecule, and it tells the body’s immune system to go into asperity, releasing CRP and many other inflammation-causing substances. Being overweight increases inflammation because adipose cells, particularly those around the midsection, make large amounts of IL-6 and CRP. As blood sugar levels increase, so do IL-6 and CRP.,
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a key factor of inflammation. In a major study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, people with elevated CRP levels were four and one-half times more likely to have a heart attack. Not only is elevated CRP more accurate than cholesterol in predicting heart attack risk, but high CRP levels have turned up in people with diabetes and pre-diabetes and in people who are overweight..,
 Angiogenesis and Inflammation Faceoff; Nature Medicine 12, 171 - 172 (2006)
 Effect of Prolonged Carbohydrate Restriction on Serum-insulin Levels in Mild Diabetes
P. A. Rudnick and K. W. Taylor; Br Med J. 1965 May 8; 1(5444): 1225–1228.; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2166593/
 Liu S, Manson JE, Buring HE, et al. Relation between a diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in middle-aged women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2002;75:492-498. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/75/3/492.short
 Intake of Refined Carbohydrates and Whole Grain Foods in Relation to Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease; Simin Liu, MD, ScD, FACN; Am Coll Nutr August 2002 vol. 21 no. 4 298-306; http://www.jacn.org/content/21/4/298.long
 Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, et al. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. New England Journal of Medicine, 2000;342:836-843.
Nurse Practitioner Marcelle Pick writes, “At our medical practice we are convinced that the seeds of chronic inflammation (and a lot of other health issues) start with the gut. Intestinal bloating, frequent bouts of diarrhea or constipation, gas and pain, heartburn and acid reflux are early signs of an inflamed digestive tract. For most people, high-carb, low-protein diets are inflammatory. We’ve seen repeatedly that low-carb diets reduce inflammation for most women. Refined sugar and other foods with high-glycemic values jack up insulin levels and put the immune system on high alert. (The glycemic index measures the immediate impact of a food on blood sugar levels; surges of blood sugar trigger the release of insulin.) Short-lived hormones inside our cells called eicosanoids act as pro- or anti-inflammatory compounds depending on their type. Eicosanoids become imbalanced—that is, skewed toward pro-inflammatory—when insulin levels are high. As if this weren’t enough, high insulin levels activate enzymes that raise levels of arachidonic acid in our blood. So the first step in cooling inflammation on a cellular level is to pay attention to your diet, in particular your glycemic load (a measure of the glycemic index and portion of a food), essential fatty acid intake, and food sensitivities.”
In response to high sugar intake the body is flooded with insulin and stress hormones. These inundate the blood supply triggering the inflammation process that creates stress and pain on your organs and joints. The less sugar a person eats the less inflammation they will experience, and the stronger their immune system will be to protect from infectious and degenerative diseases. Many things can lead to chronic joint pain, but more often than not, inflammation is the cause, with sugars being its greatest antagonist. The pain people feel in stiff, achy joints is your body’s way of letting you know that inflammation exists.
Two major studies, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) of 1993 and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) of 1998, have demonstrated that hyperglycemia is the causative etiology for diabetic retinopathy. Hyperglycemia causes microvascular changes that in turn result in retinopathy. Angiogenesis is stimulated when hypoxic, diseased, or injured tissues produce and release angiogenic promoters such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1. These angiogenic factors stimulate the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells in existing vessels and, subsequently, the formation of capillary tubes and the recruitment of other cell types to generate and stabilise new blood vessels. There is increasing evidence that inflammation has a central role in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy.
Get an oil change. Swap saturated and trans-fats for olive oil,
which has potent anti-inflammatory properties, or
polyunsaturated fats, especially omega-3 fats from fish.
Harvard’s Recipe for Inflammation
Researchers in China who have been studying the inhibitory effects of polysaccharide extract from Spirulina platensis on corneal neovascularization have a lot to say on the application of natural angiogenic inhibitors.[1undefined] In this study medical scientists demonstrated anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammation properties of polysaccharides from spirulina. They confirmed that the anti-angiogenic effects of spirulina were mediated by interference with the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro. Spirulina dramatically decreased the levels of phosphorylated AKT and ERK1/2 in endothelial cells. Both of these protein kinases are involved in the angiogenic process.
High levels of blood sugar, or glucose, react with proteins to produce advanced glycation end products (AGES). Fructose in the blood produces these inflammatory compounds more than ten times faster. That is why fructose is a bad sweetener for diabetics and everyone else. Staying away from high-glycemic (simple) carbohydrates, which the body rapidly converts to sugar, is one of the best ways to decrease inflammation.
“Sugar can play a role in inflammatory diseases,” says Dave Grotto a spokesperson for the American Dietetic Association. “Poor regulation of glucose and insulin is a breeding ground for inflammation.” Dr. David Servan-Schreiber writes, “Insulin production triggers inflammation. Those who eat low-sugar Asian diets tend to have 5-10 times fewer hormonally driven cancers than those with diets high in sugar and refined foods. People who want to protect themselves from cancer should reduce their consumption of processed sugar and bleached flour.”
Cutting sugar intake and increasing protein, fiber, and fat (good fat) intake can help the body produce less insulin, lower inflammation and still provide the necessary required nutrients for healthy bodily functioning. Eating sugar with protein and/or fat and fiber will help slow down the sugar metabolism process, thus helping your body process sugar in a healthier manner. Too much sugar, without enough protein, fat, and fiber, will cause imbalance of nutritional intake, which in turn will lead to insulin overproduction, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.