Join 90,000 others
in my newsletter and
get 5 chapters for free!

Hydrogen Medicine eBook Cover

Enlargement of Capillaries Narrowed by Hypoxia and Inflammation

Published on August 4, 2023

SARS CoV-2 affects the microcirculation, causing endothelial cell swelling and damage, microscopic blood clots (micro thrombosis), capillary congestion, and damage to pericytes that are integral to capillary integrity and barrier function, tissue repair (angiogenesis), and scar formation.

Like other instances of critical illness, COVID-19 is also associated with elevated cytokine levels in the systemic circulation. Capillary damage and inflammation contribute to acute and chronic COVID-19 symptoms by interfering with blood and tissue oxygenation and with brain function. Undetectable by current diagnostic methods, capillary flow disturbances limit oxygen diffusion exchange in lungs and tissue and may therefore cause hypoxemia and tissue hypoxia.

Microvascular disease caused by diabetes
is a potential target for CO2 therapy.

For Covid and most other diseases, doctors should focus on the permanent improvement of the oxygen flux into all the tissues. The improvement of oxygen transport into tissues is of decisive importance for fighting against the common cause of diseases, disorders, and complaints that often go along with increasing age due to insufficient oxygen (energy) supply for general metabolism. Hypoxia, which commonly associates with cancer, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, provokes an acute inflammatory response.

Small vessel disease (SVD) refers to a condition in which the
small blood vessels in the brain become damaged or narrowed.

Small vessel disease refers to conditions where damage to arterioles and capillaries is predominant, leading to reduced or interrupted perfusion of the affected organ. Data suggest that when this condition is evident in any organ, it is already systemic in its occurrence and consequences. SVD affects primarily organs that receive significant portions of cardiac output such as the brain, the kidney, and the retina. Thus, SVD is a major etiologic cause of debilitating conditions such as renal failure, blindness, lacunar infarcts, and dementia. Small vessel disease is a major health threat.

Inflammation interferes with oxygen transfer to cells.

Inflammation is the most common cause of tissue hypoxia and/or decreased circulation. Both inflamed tissues, as well as the areas surrounding malignant tumors, are characterized by hypoxia. Inflammation can lead to sepsis, circulatory collapse, and ultimately multi-system organ failure.

Endothelial cells may become damaged
when the environment is inflammatory.

Inflammation is inseparable from lower pH, oxygen, CO2, and cell energy levels. With inflammation, we also have viral, bacterial, and fungal sharks ready to start biting on tissues until the entire process leads to degenerative diseases and cancer.

Acute and chronic inflammation is associated with changes in microvascular form and function. The battle to increase oxygen delivery into the cells is won in the capillaries. When we open them and reduce inflammation in them we increase the blood microcirculation and, consequently, realize a permanent elevation of the oxygen influx and uptake into the cells. The medical-industrial complex can shout about promising new cancer drugs but none of them will elevate oxygen delivery to the cells back to healthy levels.

Sustained tissue hypoxia is associated with many pathophysiological conditions, including chronic inflammation, chronic wounds, slow-healing fractures, microvascular complications of diabetes, and metastatic spread of tumors. This extended deficiency of oxygen (O2) in the tissue sets creates a microenvironment that supports inflammation and initiates cell survival paradigms. Elevating tissue carbon dioxide levels (CO2) pushes the tissue environment toward “thrive mode,” bringing increased blood flow, added O2, reduced inflammation, and enhanced angiogenesis.[i]

Improved tissue oxygenation combined with antimicrobials has achieved greater efficacy in pathogen clearance (Knighton et al., 1986). During infection and disease, O2 demand can increase because of various factors including increased metabolism of infiltrated immune cells and microbial proliferation, resulting in a hypoxic environment (Lewis et al., 1999). Hypoxia has a pleiotropic role in tissue inflammation and infection and may exacerbate or attenuate disease.

A grand unification theory of medicine would describe this area of physiology where certain things are happening simultaneously with others. There is a point where one cannot separate oxygen from CO2 levels because they are locked into a tight mathematical relationship with each other. The same is true about pH and cell voltage. As CO2 levels go south with O2 levels, pH dives as does cell voltage.

Inflammation is a Low Oxygen Condition

Vascular Brownout – occurs when a hypoxic stress event causes inflammation in the vascular endothelium. This shrinks the inside size of the pipes that carry blood into a bottleneck. Each bottleneck inhibits blood flow to choke off oxygen to downstream tissue. This choke has three adverse effects:

  • Tissue Brownout– tissue is locked into low energy from hypoxia;
  • Concentrates Toxins – because blood flow that would normally wash it out is limited;
  • Reduced Immunity– so the area is less protected from infection than normal tissue;
  • Accelerated Aging– Stressed cells don’t live as long so the body is forced to replace them.

Local pH Imbalance – the tissue brownout triggers a triple pH dysfunction. First, anaerobic cells produce lactic acid; second anaerobic cells cease production of carbon dioxide, third the bottleneck that inhibits blood flow causes waste products to linger, creating an area prone to “acid” soreness as waste products irritate tissues. These areas are unable to perform because their energy is reduced to 1/19 normal.

Immune Brownout – the brownout region of weakened cells becomes the preferred habitat for parasitic organisms. First, reduced cellular energy decreases the cellular ability to resist attack and inhibited blood flow making it harder for the immune system to protect the tissue, and increased toxins create a nutrient-rich feedstock for parasitic organisms.

Small vessel disease is a condition in which the walls of the small
arteries in the heart aren’t working properly. This reduces the flow
of oxygen-rich blood to the heart,
causing chest pain (angina),
shortness of breath, and other signs and symptoms of heart disease

“It is believed that cancer is caused by an accumulation of mutations in cells of the body,” says Dr. Carlo M. Croce, professor and chair of molecular virology, immunology, and medical genetics. “Our study suggests that miR-155, which is associated with inflammation, increases the mutation rate and might be a key player in inflammation-induced cancers generally.” This and many other studies show how inflammation can help cause cancer. Chronic inflammation due to infection or conditions such as chronic inflammatory bowel disease is associated with up to 25% of all cancers.

Organ tolerance to hypoxia depends on the blood supply. In fact,
the kidney is intrinsically susceptible to hypoxia and the prevalence
and the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide.

Professor Manfred von Ardenne (a student of Dr. Otto Warburg) wrote[ii], “Because more than 80% of all cancer deaths are caused by metastases, development, and evaluation of methods for fighting tumor dissemination should be major tasks of present cancer research. Formation of metastases is favored by both reduced numbers of immune cells in the bloodstream and impaired oxygen transport into tissues. These closely related signs often emerge concomitantly when the organism is endangered by circulating tumor cells released from the original tumor by therapeutic manipulations. From knowledge of these facts, the O2-multistep immune stimulation technique (an early form of EWOT) has been developed as a way of diminishing the risk of tumor spread. The process combines temporary elevation of the number of circulating immune cells with continuous improvement of oxygen transport into tissues.

If the oxygen state gets worse and declines below a certain threshold, e.g., in progressing age or after long-term distress, the cross sections of the capillaries shrink by swelling of the endothelial cells, and the blood microcirculation will be diminished for an extended period. Reversing this degradation is quite a medical feat but can easily be accomplished with EWOT (Exercise with Oxygen Therapy) and with direct application of CO2 gas through inhalation (available soon) and even more powerfully through a CO2 Body Stream dry suit. Both therapies target capillary inflammation with bursts of plasma-dissolved oxygen.

Carbon Dioxide is a medical sword and with it, we get to the roots of disease and the most basic cause of cancer. CO2 is the flame of life and without it, there is no life and no oxygen because plants use it to make the oxygen in our atmosphere. Without CO2 no oxygen gets into our cells. Without it, we get sick and die.

The Golden Key to Medical Success

Professor von Ardenne talks about EWOT creating a “Switching mechanism that creates a re-enlargement of the capillary narrowed by oxygen deficiency (old age, disease, distress). The re-enlargement appears after increased oxygen uptake of the blood and improved oxygen utilization of human tissue over a certain time period.”

Microvascular ischemic disease is a brain condition that commonly
affects older people. Untreated, it can lead to dementia, stroke,
and difficulty walking. CO2 therapies are a must for this population.

Resolved inflammation restores the blood supply to tissue – and allows the tissue to return to normal aerobic metabolism. Professor Ardenne showed that stress triggers persistent inflammation, which locks an escalating percentage of the body, and muscles into anaerobic metabolism – especially with advancing age.[iii]

Small vessel disease (SVD) causes 25% of strokes and contributes to 45% of dementia cases. Prevalence increases with age, affecting about 5% of people aged 50 years to almost 100% of people older than 90 years.

Microvascular heart disease affects about four times as many women as men and “is serious, actually,” said Dr. Stacey Rosen, a cardiologist and spokeswoman for the American Heart Association since it can lead to heart attacks, heart failure and death. In terms of the cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension is a major driver of SVD.

A newly emphasized risk factor for SVD is a poor sleep pattern. Those who chronically cheat themselves out of sufficient sleep suffer from increased systemic inflammation and are at risk for SVD and eventually develop cortical atrophy. The most likely reason for this is that metabolic clearance from the brain occurs preferentially during sleep. Unfortunately, it is estimated that a large segment of the population lives daily with inadequate sleep, particularly in school-aged children.


Patients with small vessel disease (SVD) keep many subspecialists occupied. He or she sees the neurologist for failing memory function and for other consequences of lacunar infarcts, the ophthalmologist for failing vision, the nephrologist for failing kidney function, the cardiologist for heart failure, and the family physician and geriatrician for control of vascular risk factors.

It’s important to note that the specific treatment plan for small vessel disease will vary depending on the individual’s unique health condition and risk factors. However, stay away from these healthcare professionals because they are blind to the use of CO2 and appropriate oxygen therapies. They also have no clue how intense infrared treatments can help repair damaged vascular systems. And these professionals would be shot dead if they even think about using chlorine dioxide to further the goal of opening microcirculation.

“I can tell you that over the last 18 months of using chlorine dioxide, I have
opened the small blood vessels in my feet. The pain and discomfort
are gone. I can certainly tell now that blood is circulating much better.”
Jim Wood

Infrared light therapy works by using specific wavelengths of light to penetrate the skin and reach the underlying tissues. This can potentially promote various biological responses and cellular processes. Some potential ways in which infrared treatments may benefit the vascular system include:

  1. Increased Blood Circulation: Infrared light has been shown to stimulate the production of nitric oxide, which helps dilate blood vessels and improve blood flow. Improved circulation can potentially aid in the repair and maintenance of blood vessels.
  2. Reduced Inflammation: Infrared light therapy has been found to have anti-inflammatory effects, which can be beneficial in reducing inflammation in blood vessels and promoting healing.
  3. Enhanced Tissue Repair: Infrared light has been suggested to accelerate tissue repair and regeneration, which could aid in the healing of damaged blood vessel walls.
  4. Improved Endothelial Function: The endothelium is the inner lining of blood vessels, and its proper function is crucial for vascular health. Some studies suggest that infrared treatments may improve endothelial function.
  5. Potential for Angiogenesis: Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels, and some preliminary studies have suggested that infrared light may stimulate this process. This could be beneficial in repairing damaged blood vessels.

[i] The Tissue Response to Hypoxia: How Therapeutic Carbon Dioxide Moves the Response toward Homeostasis and Away from Instability. Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(6), 5181;

[ii] Fundamentals of combating cancer metastasis by oxygen multistep immunostimulant processes. von Ardenne M.; Med Hypotheses. 1985 May;17(1):47-65;

[iii] Measurements and combat of stress effects; von Ardenne M.; ZFA. 1981;36(6):473-87;

Dr. Mark Sircus AC., OMD, DM (P)

Professor of Natural Oncology, Da Vinci Institute of Holistic Medicine
Doctor of Oriental and Pastoral Medicine
Founder of Natural Allopathic Medicine

Oncology Banner

Never miss Dr. Sircus updates. Join 90,000 others in my newsletter and get a free ebook!

Get Updates

Join 90,000 others
in my newsletter and
get 5 chapters for free!

Hydrogen Medicine eBook Cover


For questions pertaining to your own personal health issues or for specific dosing of Dr. Sircus's protocol items please seek a consultation or visit our knowledge base to see if your question may have been answered previously.