Driving Force in Climate Changes, Volcanos and Earthquakes
Back in 1996 Danish physicists suggested that cosmic rays, energetic particles from space, are important in the formation of clouds. Since then, experiments in Copenhagen and elsewhere have demonstrated that cosmic rays actually help small clusters of molecules to form. By firing a particle beam into a cloud chamber, physicists in Denmark and the UK have shown how cosmic rays could stimulate the formation of water droplets in the Earth’s atmosphere. The researchers say this is the best experimental evidence yet that the Sun influences the climate by altering the intensity of the cosmic-ray flux reaching the Earth’s surface.
In 1995, Henrik Svensmark discovered a startling connection between the cosmic ray flux from space and cloud cover. He found that when the sun is more active–more sunspots, a stronger magnetic field, larger auroras, stronger solar winds, etc.–fewer cosmic rays strike the earth and cloud cover is reduced, resulting in warmer temperatures. Svensmark offers a complete chain of events that explains the variations in global temperature that have puzzled climatologists for so many years, and that has now led to an explanation for the recent global warming episode that ended approximately 17 years ago.
Changes to the Sun’s brightness are believed to have altered temperatures by very little through direct means. What Svensmark and other scientists are showing is that the main cooling that occurs during solar minimums is not just because the sun is sending less warming rays but through reduction in protective capacity in terms of cosmic rays. It is an indirect effect.
Most of us are not physicists so we do not pay attention to the subtle world of energies that surround us. It is not only the sun that is weakening demonstrating few and sometimes no sunspot activity. Earth’s magnetic field is also weakening “setting into motion a chain of events which causes destabilizing of Earth’s fluids – mostly of magma and also oceans and ice. These natural cyclical events cause the shifting of weather patterns, climate, elevated earth changing events such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tornadoes, hurricanes etc.”
The sun is not subtle at all keeping all life possible down here on planet earth. The sun, when aroused puts out a higher velocity of solar wind that protects the earth from cosmic rays. During periods of low solar activity, which we are now experiencing, the solar winds decrease allowing more cosmic rays to penetrate, which increases cloud formation, which would be the main cooling mechanism from diminished solar activity. Whatever theories are presented we have history to tell us that we have had mini ice ages at times when the sun has shown diminished sun spot activity.
Upon reaching the lower atmosphere where more sulphur dioxide, water vapor, and ozone is present, the cosmic rays ionize the air, releasing electrons that aid in the formation of more cloud condensation nuclei and form more dense clouds. This increase in low-cloud amount reflects more solar energy to space, cooling the planet. The increasingly intense rain and snow storms can, in all likelihood, be attributed to the decreasing solar winds and increasing cosmic rays that are penetrating the earth.
An experiment at CERN, Europe’s high-energy physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland, confirmed this theory of cloud formation and cosmic rays. For a century, scientists have known that charged particles from space constantly bombard Earth. Known as cosmic rays, the particles are mostly protons blasted out of supernovae. As the protons crash through the planet’s atmosphere, they can ionize volatile compounds, causing them to condense into airborne droplets, or aerosols. Clouds then build up around the droplets.
A paper published in Environmental Research Letters in 2014 corroborates the Svensmark cosmic ray theory of climate, whereby tiny 0.1% changes in solar activity are amplified via the effect on cosmic rays and cloud formation, which in turn may control global temperatures. The authors find cosmic ray variations due to changes over solar cycles may have as much as 10 times larger effect than previous studies have estimated. The paper also finds that a tiny 0.2C temperature increase increases the cosmic ray induced cloud condensation nuclei by around 50%, thus acting as a natural homeostatic mechanism.
According to the authors, "The effect of solar cycle perturbation on [cloud condensation nuclei] based on present study is generally higher than those reported in several previous studies, up to around one order of magnitude [10 times]…Our global simulations indicate that a decrease in ionization rate associated with galactic cosmic ray flux change from solar minimum to solar maximum reduces annual mean nucleation rates, number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei larger than 10 nm… by 6.8%, 1.36%…respectively. The inclusion of 0.2 °C temperature increase enhances the CCN [cloud condensation nuclei] solar cycle signals by around 50%."
“The sun is a variable star, which emits both electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles known as the solar wind – these are released as a plasma carrying a fingerprint of the solar magnetic field throughout inter-planetary space. Effects from the solar wind are felt at distances well beyond Neptune, possibly up to 200 AU from the sun, in a region of space known as the Heliosphere (figure 1). The flux of the inter-planetary magnetic field (IMF) at 1AU is ✂5nT. Variability in solar activity affects both the radiative output of the sun and the strength of the IMF carried by the solar wind. The IMF shields the heliosphere from galactic cosmic radiation which, consists of energetic particles, mainly protons that are accelerated through stellar processes in our galaxy. Thus, solar variability modulates both the flux of incoming galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and the amount of solar radiation received by the planets. Historical evidence over the past 1000 years indicates that changes in climate have occurred in accord with variability in cosmic ray intensities”
Cosmic Rays and Increases in Earthquakes and Volcano Eruptions
Actually there is nothing subtle about changes in cosmic ray levels and nothing subtle about the changes going on in the sun. Some scientists are not so sure about the cloud cosmic ray connection but if cosmic rays are strong enough to set off volcanoes one would think it child’s play to seed some clouds. Explosive volcanic eruptions are triggered by cosmic rays with volcanos acting as giant bubble chambers.
Volcanoes with silica-rich and highly viscous magma tend to produce violent explosive eruptions that result in disasters in local communities and that strongly affect the global environment. We examined the timing of 11 eruptive events that produced silica-rich magma from four volcanoes in Japan (Mt. Fuji, Mt. Usu, Myojinsho, and Satsuma-Iwo-jima) over the past 306 years (from AD 1700 to AD 2005). Nine of the 11 events occurred during inactive phases of solar magnetic activity (solar minimum), which is well indexed by the group sunspot number. This strong association between eruption timing and the solar minimum is statistically significant to a confidence level of 96.7%.
“If it seems like earthquakes and erupting volcanoes are happening more frequently, that’s because they are. Looking at global magnitude six (M6) or greater from 1980 to 1989 there was an average of 108.5 earthquakes per year, from 2000 to 2009 the planet averaged 160.9 earthquakes per year: that is a 38.9% increase of M6+ earthquakes in recent years. Unrest also seems to be growing among the world’s super-volcanoes. Iceland (which is home to some of the most dangerous volcanoes on the planet), Santorini in Greece, Uturuncu in Bolivia, the Yellowstone and Long Valley calderas in the U.S., Laguna del Maule in Chile, Italy’s Campi Flegrei – almost all of the world’s active super-volcanic systems are now exhibiting some signs of inflation, an early indication that pressure is building in these volcanic systems.”
A 1967 study published in the Earth and Planetary Science Letters found that solar activity, as indicated by sunspots, radio noise and geomagnetic indices, plays a significant but by no means exclusive role in the triggering of earthquakes. Maximum quake frequency occurs at times of moderately high and fluctuating solar activity.
The International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences reported in 2012 about the relationships between solar activities (sunspots, solar 10.7cm radio flux, solar irradiance, and solar proton events) and local earthquakes. The geographical location of study was in New Zealand. The study reveals the following conclusions:
1) The total numbers of earthquakes strongly show annually an increasing in number of earthquakes in New Zealand from 42 years ago.
3) The maximum earthquakes occurs in minimum years of sunspots number with a good correlation coefficient.
4) The maximum earthquakes occur in the minimum solar 10.7 cm radio flux with strong correlation coefficient.
“We have recently experienced a period that has had one of the highest rates of great earthquakes ever recorded,” said Tom Parsons, a geophysicist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in California. It seems that earthquakes and volcanic activity are on the rise and according to many scientific experts we can expect more in the near future.
A 1998 report by a scientist from the Beijing Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, also found a correlation between low solar activity and earthquakes. Earthquakes occur frequently around the minimum years of solar activity. Generally, the earthquake activities are relatively less during the peak value years of solar activity, some say, around the period when magnetic polarity in the solar Polar Regions is reversed.
Volcanic and Earthquake Activity In May 2015
Michigan was just hit by the worst earthquake that state has seen in more than 60 years. In recent days, there have been a series of alarming earthquakes all over the United States and around the rest of the world.
Two 6.8-magnitude earthquakes strike off Solomon Islands
Awakening again? Alert level raised to “yellow” on Chile’s Chaitén volcano
Indonesia’s Lokon-Empung volcano shaken by violent eruption
UK rocked as 4.2 magnitude earthquake hits near London
Guatemala’s Volcán de Fuego growing increasingly restless
Strong 6.8 magnitude earthquake hits near Solomon Islands
Ground level in Mount Hakone volcanic area rises as much as 12 cm
Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion) erupts for the second time in 2015
Another aftershock: Nepal struck by 5.7-magnitude earthquake
Officials warn Guatemala’s Fuego volcano becoming more active
Five more aftershocks hit Nepal as toll in fresh quake tops 100
Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano lava lake drops out of public view – earthquakes continue
Molten lava gushes out of Sicily’s Mount Etna volcano
Powerful 6.8 magnitude earthquake rocks northeastern Japan
New 7.3 magnitude earthquake strikes Nepal –
buildings collapse, mass panic ensues – 66 dead
Nicaragua’s Telica Volcano dusts town with ash –
30 eruptions reported after 8 year hiatus
Costa Rica’s Turrialba Volcano erupts again,
scientists warn of increased health risks, economic damage
Hawaii’s Big Island shaken by twin earthquakes – volcanic lake hit record levels
Expert warns Japan has entered ‘era of great quakes and eruptions’ –
volcanoes stirring across Japan
Hundreds flee Philippines’s rumbling Bulusan volcano
Hundreds evacuated as Indonesia’s Karangetang volcano violently erupts in N. Sulawesi
Costa Rica’s Volcano Turrialba spews black ash cloud 6,000 ft into air
Strong 7.1 magnitude earthquake rocks Papua New Guinea, no tsunami threat
Nepal Earthquake death toll surges past 7,500 victims,
with 14,500 reportedly injured
Volcanic earthquakes surge near Japan’s Hakone Volcano –
volcano hasn’t erupted in 800 years.
7.5 magnitude strikes the New Britain region of Papua New Guinea –
3rd large quake in two months
The most powerful volcano in Kamchatka releases steam and ash
Scientists confirm submarine volcanic eruption 300 miles off the coast
of Washington State – massive ‘quiet’ lava burst